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Curtin, ‘Medical knowledge and you may urban planning into the warm Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical knowledge and you may urban planning into the warm Africa’, AHR, 90, step three (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step one9step 14), step one40-1

96 AOM, AP648, Decree with the creation of a beneficial Commune on Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; message out of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Annual statement off Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Bien au Congo, 121. a hundred Colonel Moll, Une dme de- colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De Bordeaux au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step three2-step 3, step 3 8 ^ 0 . 101 To own metropolitan architecture within the colonial Africa, pick, Philip D. Betts, Undecided dimensions: west overseas empires from the twentieth century (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Push, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion sur l’architecture europeenne le enough time de los angeles cote africaine good partir de- l’exemple de la Guinee’, within the Almeida-Topor and you can Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes en ce qui concerne VAfrique, 81-92; and Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition regarding the provider off modernity: architecture and you can urbanism when you look at the French colonial plan, 1900-1930’, Journal of modern History, 59 (Summer 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 Into the background and you will need for this new Fourteenth out-of July inside Brazzaville, look for Phyllis Yards. Martin, ‘National holidays switched: the fourteenth of July in Brazzaville’, papers exhibited at the thirty-7th yearly meeting of African Studies Association, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la part de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 106 Speech out of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and you may Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais durante Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The feeling from colonialism to your health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical training and urban planning’, 594-eight. 110 Ibid., 598-609; in addition to Headrick, ‘The perception regarding colonialism for the health’, 1cuatro3-cuatro, 801-dos. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur la region de Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Le Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport sur la part de- Brazzaville’; and AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Officer in order to Commissioner-Standard from inside the Libreville, thirteen July 1901. 116 Quoted during the Headrick, ‘The feeling regarding colonialism to your health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 May 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Yearly account ‘Oeuvres de- los angeles Sainte-Enfance’, twenty four Oct 1901,1 January 1903,10 November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue was a regard to manioc cash. 120 AOM, TP152, very first show, Objective Fillon, Report off Meters. Henri to the Brazzaville associates, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine.

Fehderau, The foundation and you may growth of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) suggests that Kituba was a vocabulary in the slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Record, 30 Could possibly get 1908; R. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9. 124 Select, eg, J.-P. Chretien and you will Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The manufacture of tribalism inside the southern Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Gray, Modernization and you will social identity: the creation of federal place from inside the rural France and you can colonial place for the rural Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Center on International Transform and World Tranquility, 1994); Terence Ranger, Brand new innovation from traditions in colonial Africa’, in Hobsbawm and you will Ranger (eds.), The new invention from culture, 211-62, which he provides changed since innovation out of society reviewed: possible away from colonial Africa’, into the Terence Ranger and you will Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Legitimacy while the condition within the twentieth millennium Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. On the inform out-of his article, Ranger has been swayed, and others, because of the Benedict Anderson, Imagined communities: reflections to the sources and you will pass on out of nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, The brand new root out of Kituba and you may Lingala’, Diary from African Languages and you will Linguistics, twelve, step 1 (September 1991), 47-77, means that its diffusion is far more linked to international railway experts on the down Congo. 126 ASMF, Elizabeth l l . Brev fran Kongo, dutch dating websites Lindgren to SMF, 18 October 1911; B and you will Age. zero. step 1, Korr., Lindgren in order to SMF, eleven November 1911; F. zero. step 1, Dagbok, twenty-two March 1914; Brev fran Kongo, G. A good. Hult so you can SMF, eleven January 1918. 127 Speech regarding Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Report regarding Pool region, Brazzaville, May 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y an excellent-t-il de l’ensemble des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The root off Kituba and you will Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and you can ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you can colonial imagination’, Canadian Record regarding African Education, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Mission Diary, 29 Can get 1908,25 September 1910,1 December 1913. 131 Select chapters step three and you may cuatro. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, twenty seven (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), fifty, 72-step 3,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 29, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management statement, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban place, industrial go out, and you can wage work inside the Africa’, in his Battle towards the area, 23. 2 step 1

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